Useful Links



American Society for Microbiology: Risk Factors for Contamination of Domestic Hot Water Systems by Legionella

http://aem.asm.org/content/57/8/2360

Aquamedix: Legionella Point-of-Use Filters

https://aquamedix.net/shop/?gclid=CjwKEAiAyO_BBRDOgM-K8MGWpmYSJACePQ9C8bIqIlQsOKIqYA55nLtMi2zette3Eu_8ONBL31rg7RoCsDXw_wcB

Aqua-tools: Legionella Risk assessment tools and Point-of-Use Filters

http://www.aqua-tools.com/en/

ASHRAE: Standard 188-2015

https://www.ashrae.org/resources--publications/bookstore/ansi-ashrae-standard-188-2015-legionellosis-risk-management-for-building-water-systems

Legionnaire’s Disease Prevention for Property and Community Managers and HOA’s

https://www.buildium.com/blog/legionnaires-disease-prevention-at-your-properties/

Business Database: How to clean your showers to prevent Legionella

http://businessdatabase.indicator.co.uk/business_advice_directory/articles/Legionella/how_to_clean_your_showers/UKTAHSAR_EU13060601/74/topArt

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

https://wwwn.cdc.gov/elite/public/elitehome.aspx

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Legionella (Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac Fever

https://www.cdc.gov/Legionella/clinicians/disease-specifics.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Legionnaires’ disease Among Patients at the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System

https://www.cdc.gov/washington/testimony/2013/t20130205.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Legionella Sampling Procedure

https://www.cdc.gov/Legionella/downloads/cdc-sampling-procedure.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Preventing Scalding for Children

https://www.cdc.gov/safechild/burns/index.html

https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/aquatics-professionals/index.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Causes, How it Spreads and People at Increased Risk

https://www.cdc.gov/Legionella/about/causes-transmission.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Diagnosis

https://www.cdc.gov/Legionella/about/diagnosis.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Information Pamphlet

https://www.cdc.gov/Legionella/downloads/fs-legionnaires.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Disinfection of Hot Tubs Contaminated with Legionella

http://www.cdc.gov/Legionella/downloads/hot-tub-disinfection.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Toolkit

https://www.cdc.gov/Legionella/downloads/toolkit.pdf

Clorox: Regular Bleach

https://www.clorox.com/products/clorox-concentrated-regular-bleach/?utm_source=bing&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=UCL_How%20To_Broad&utm_term=how%20to%20disinfect%20with%20bleach&utm_content=General#Any-Room

Cooling Technology Institute: What is a (Wet, Atmospheric) Cooling tower

www.cti.org/whatis/coolingtower.shtml

Condair: Legionella in Humidifiers

http://www.condair.co.uk/knowledge-hub/legionnaires-disease-humidifiers-what-you-need-to-know

Department of Environmental Conservation: Environmental Assessment Form (EAF) Workbooks

http://www.dec.ny.gov/permits/90125.html

Department of Veterans Affairs: Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Legionella Disease and Scalding from Potable Water Distribution Systems

www.va.gov/vhapublications/ViewPublication.asp?pub_ID=3033

EMLab P&K: Sampling and Controlling Legionella Bacteria in Domestic Water Systems

https://www.emlab.com/media/resources/Sampling-Controlling-Legionella-Domestic-Water-System.pdf

Energy.gov: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

https://energy.gov/eere/femp/covered-product-category-residential-electric-resistance-water-heaters

Environmental Protection Agency: Legionella in Premise Plumbing

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-10/documents/drafttechLegionellaoct2015.pdf

Environmental Protection Agency: Legionella Master Document 2016

https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/Legionella_document_master_september_2016_final.pdf

New York Department of Health: Nursing Home Guidance for Prevention and Control of Legionella

https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/legionellosis/docs/2015_nursing_home_guidance.pdf

Holland Water: The Efficiency of Various Disinfection Methods against Legionella in Water Systems

http://hollandwater.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/10-comparion-Legionella-Disinfection-Techniques-22-09-2016.pdf

Home Repair Central:How to Flush a Water Heater

http://www.home-repair-central.com/how-to-flush-a-water-heater.html

Home Repair Central:How to Turn on a Water Heater

http://www.home-repair-central.com/how-to-turn-on-a-water-heater.html

https://www.houselogic.com/organize-maintain/home-maintenance-tips/hot-water-heater-buyers-guide/

Health and Safety Executive: Managing Legionella in Hot and Cold Water Systems

http://www.hse.gov.uk/healthservices/Legionella.htm

Journal of Clinical Microbiology: Comparison of Culture Methods for Monitoring Legionella in hospitals

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC228346/

Legionella.org: Guidelines for Control of Legionella in Ornamental Water Features

http://Legionellae.org/guidelines/ControlofLegionellainWaterFeatures.pdf

Mayo Clinic: Legionnaires’ disease, Symptoms and Causes

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/legionnaires-disease/symptoms-causes/dxc-20248078

Modern Building Services: Controlling Legionella in Solar-Thermal Systems

http://www.modbs.co.uk/news/archivestory.php/aid/5638/Controlling_Legionella_in__solar-thermal_systems.html

US National Library of Medicine: Residential Water Heater Temperature: 49 or 60 degrees Celsius?

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2094925/

National Sanitation Foundation: New CDC Toolkit Provides Imperative Legionella Information for Building Owners and Managers

http://www.nsf.org/newsroom/new-cdc-toolkit-provides-imperative-Legionella-information-for-building-own

New Your Department of health: Prevention and Control of Legionnaires’ disease in Healthcare Facilities

https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/communicable/legionellosis/docs/2015-08-10_health_advisory.pdf

Occupational Safety & Health Administration: Legionnaires’ disease

https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/legionnaires/sampling.html#Guidelines

Occupational Safety & Health Administration: Legionnaires’ disease

https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/legionnaires/faq.html

Plumbing and Mechanical: Preventing Legionella in Home Plumbing Systems

http://www.pmmag.com/articles/86044-preventing-Legionella-in-home-plumbing-systems

National Sanitation Foundation: How to Avoid Legionnaires’ disease at Home

http://standards.nsf.org/apps/group_public/download.php/30413/How%20to%20Avoid%20LD%20at%20Home.pdf

Quora: What are the Differences Between and Electric and a Gas Water Heater

https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-differences-between-an-electric-and-and-a-gas-water-heater

Research gate: Identification of Legionella in the Environment

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233411961_Identification_of_Legionella_in_the_Environment

Steven Banks-Plumbing, Heating and Eco Energies: Legionella Ecology, Disinfection and Prevention

http://www.heating-plumbers.co.uk/Legionella-and-plumbing-systems/

State of Israel-Ministry of Health: Prevention Infection with Legionella due to the Use of Humidifiers

http://www.health.gov.il/English/News_and_Events/Spokespersons_Messages/Pages/13082013_1.aspx

US National Library of Medicine: Reviewing Efficacy of Alternative Water Treatment Techniques

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11447890

WHTLimited: Legionella Ecology and Preventative Methods

http://www.whtlimited.com/doc/lib/212/all-about-Legionella.pdf

Wikihow: How to Clean the Showerhead with Vinegar

http://www.wikihow.com/Clean-the-Showerhead-with-Vinegar

World Health Organization: Legionella, and Emerging Premise Plumbing Pathogen

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/Legionella.pdf

 

UV Disinfection Doses for Legionella

Europe PMC: Photoreactivation of Legionella after inactivation by low- or medium- pressure ultraviolet lamp

http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/15207606

American Society for Microbiology: Photoreactivation of UV-irradiated Legionella pneumophila and other Legionella species

http://aem.asm.org/content/49/4/975.abstract

US National Library of Medicine: Cellular Microbiology and Molecular Ecology of Legionella

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3710333/

 

National and International Legionella Guidelines

 

Australian Laboratory Services: EnviroMail 006- New Legionella Testing In Drinking Water, Pool Water and Jacuzzi

https://www.alsglobal.com/search?query=legionella

Centre for Health Protection: Scientific Committee of Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases

http://www.chp.gov.hk/files/pdf/scezd_recommendations_on_ld_30_dec2015.pdf Government of

EWGLI Technical Guidelines for the Investigation, Control and Prevention of Travel Associated Legionnaires’ disease

http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/healthtopics/legionnaires_disease/ELDSNet/Documents/EWGLI-Technical-Guidelines.pdf

Florida Department of Health: Guidelines for the Surveillance, Investigation and Control of Legionnaires’ disease in Florida

http://www.floridahealth.gov/diseases-and-conditions/legionnaires-disease/_documents/legionella-guidelines.pdf

Health Protection Surveillance Centre: Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection from Water Systems in Healthcare Facilities

https://www.hpsc.ie/AboutHPSC/ScientificCommittees/Sub-CommitteesofHPSCSAC/WaterGuidelinesSub-Committee/File,14451,en.pdf

https://www.hpsc.ie/A-Z/Respiratory/Legionellosis/Publications/File,3936,en.pdf

The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation: Official Standards of the UIAA Medical Commission Vol: 19

http://theuiaa.org/documents/mountainmedicine/Engl_UIAA_MedCom_Rec_No_19_Legionella_2010_V1-3.pdf

PathCon Laboratories: Legionella Control

http://www.pathcon.com

Public Health Ontario: Legionella Questions and Answers

https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/eRepository/Legionella_Questions_Answers_2014.pdf

Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care: Environmental Investigation of Legionella in Health Care Institutional Settings

http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/pro/programs/publichealth/oph_standards/docs/guidance/legionella_health_care_settings_gd.pdf

Ministry of Health: Legionella and Legionnaires’ disease

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/mwg-internal/de5fs23hu73ds/progress?id=5JdegqHuhUpufMsFd5ApaBdVZ3YkV9PirjfDFyJIcck,

Shetland Seafood Quality Control: Legionella Sampling and Interpretation Protocol

http://www.ssqc.co.uk/100c%20Legionella%20Sampling%20and%20Interpretation%20%20%201.2%2031.08.16.pdf

West Australia: Prevention and Control of Legionnaires’ disease

https://www.commerce.wa.gov.au/sites/default/files/atoms/files/legionnaires-code.pdf

World Health Organization: Legionella and the prevention of Legionellosis

http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/legionella.pdf

Additional Useful Links

American Society for Microbiology: Invasion of Protozoa and its Role in Bacterial Ecology

http://aem.asm.org/content/64/9/3127.full

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Pool/Spa Inspector Training

http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/public-health-professionals/pool-spa-inspector-training.html

Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, International: Controlling Scale in Water System to Prevent legionella

http://www.fmanet.org/blog/2012/12/12/controlling-scale-water-systems-helps-prevent-legionnaires-disease

Health and Safety Executive: What is Legionnaires’ disease?

http://www.hse.gov.uk/legionnaires/what-is.htm#introduction

http://www.legionnairesdisease.nl/about-legionnaires%E2%80%99-disease/42-questions-on-legionnaires%E2%80%99-disease

SFGate: Turning Water Heater Up to Kill Bacteria

http://homeguides.sfgate.com/turning-water-heater-up-kill-bacteria-54596.html

Steri-Spray: How Steri-Spray Prevents Legionella in Showers and Shower Heads

http://www.steri-spray.com/Legionella-control/