Links to Environmental & Health Agencies
Be sure to get the facts about chloramine from trusted, credible sources,
such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The San Francisco Public
Utilities Commission Web site also provides a great deal of useful information
and research on chloramination and drinking water.
Use the links below to access these agencies’ sites for more data and answers
to commonly asked questions about chloramine. You can also visit the
National Sanitation Foundation’s Web site for information on
in-home filters that remove chloramine and chlorine.
Basic information about chloramines and drinking water
Water systems, disinfection byproducts, and the use of
- What are chloramines?
- How long has monochloramine been used as a drinking water disinfectant? How
is monochloramine typically used? How many people/water utilities use
- Why is drinking water disinfected? What is the difference between primary
and secondary disinfection? How is monochloramine used in a treatment
- What disinfectants are available for drinking water?
- How effective is monochloramine vs. chlorine as a primary disinfectant?
- How effective is monochloramine vs. chlorine as a secondary
- Why are disinfection byproducts a public health concern?
- How does EPA regulate disinfection byproducts (DBPs)?
- How do the kinds and concentrations of disinfection byproducts formed by
monochloramine compare to those formed by chlorine?
- Why are water utilities switching to monochloramine?
- Other than chlorine and monochloramine, what options could water utilities
consider to control the levels of disinfection byproducts?
- Does EPA require water utilities to use monochloramine? Who approves the
decision for a water utility to use monochloramine?
- What assistance does EPA provide to water utilities that are considering a
switch from chlorine to monochloramine?
Common health questions related to
- How did EPA evaluate the safety of monochloramine for use as a drinking
- Why does EPA believe that sufficient research has been conducted to approve
the use of monochloramine as a drinking water disinfectant?
- Why does EPA believe monochloramine is safe and appropriate to use?
- What does EPA see as the advantages of using monochloramine?
- What does EPA see as the disadvantages of using monochloramine?
- What is EPA’s current focus regarding chloramines research? What other
ongoing research is EPA aware of?
- Is it safe to drink and cook with chloraminated water?)
- Can I shower in or use a humidifier with chloraminated water?
- Can chloraminated or chlorinated water be used for dialysis or in an
- Does monochloramine cause cancer?
- Does monochloramine cause skin problems?
- Do chloramines cause breathing problems?
- Does monochloramine cause digestive problems?
- Does monochloramine change water chemistry? Does monochloramine use
contibute to the release of lead or other contaminants into drinking water?
- Can my doctor tell if my health problems are caused by monochloramine or any
other disinfectant in drinking water?
- How can I remove monochloramine from my drinking
More information about health effects
and drinking water disinfection from EPA is available in the following
To reach EPA for more
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Web site
IRIS includes updated
information up to 2005 for the oral and carcinogenicity assessments for
chloramine (assessment found under heading monochloramine).
- Drinking Water Health Criteria Document for Chloramines, (155pp, 2M)
Health and Ecological Criteria Division,
Office of Science and Technology, Office of Water, EPA, 1994. [Note: This
document is currently being revised]
- Stage 1
has further information on exposure and occurrence and summarizes
of health information used to set the current chloramine standard.
- Stage 2 Rule Web site has further information on disinfection
practices and explains risk-risk tradeoffs associated with disinfection
byproducts and pathogen control.
PA Department of Environmental
For information on chloramine basics, the advantages and disadvantages
of chloramines, the use of chloramines in Pennsylvania, lead, chloramine health
information and other resources. Visit
Department of Environmental Protection Chloramine in Drinking Wate
page or click on the question below.
San Francisco Public Utilities
The San Francisco Public
provides a great deal of helpful information related to
For more information
If you have additional questions about our planned transition to
chloramination, fill out
Chloramine Questions Form or contact our customer service center at 1-800-272-1325.
Customer Service Hours: M-F, 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. For emergencies: We're available